Leonard Shapiro

Observation, Spatial Awareness and Drawing Teacher (Biological Sciences, Anatomy, Art)

Cape Town, South Africa

Leonard Shapiro has developed a multi-sensory observation method which crucially employs the sense of touch (as well as sight), coupled with the simultaneous act of drawing. It is called the Haptico-visual observation and drawing (HVOD) method. In anatomy study, the benefits of observing using the HVOD method includes the i) enhanced observation of the 3D form of anatomical parts, ii) the cognitive memorization of anatomical parts as a 3D 'mental picture', iii) improved spatial orientation within the volume of anatomical parts and, iv) an ability to draw. This observation method is taught to medical students as well as healthy care professionals. Leonard holds a Bachelor of Fine Art (BAFA Honours) degree from the University of Cape Town (UCT) Michaelis School of Fine Art. He also holds a Bachelor of Social Science (BsocSc) degree from UCT.


  • https://anatomypubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ase.1929
  • https://anatomypubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ase.1807
  • https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/joa.13163
  • https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/joa.12637
  • https://amee.org/getattachment/Conferences/AMEE-2017/AMEE-2017-APP-DATA/8KK-Po.pdf
  • https://amee.org/getattachment/Conferences/AMEE-2017/AMEE-2017-APP-DATA/8KK-Po.pdf
  • https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/joa.12637
  • https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/toc/14697580/2020/236/S1

Leonard Shapiro's public data